Here is a selection of chess terms that appear from time to time:
Written body of high level chess game. “Book” moves – standard. A book player remembers his openings and their variations and comes out on pieces if his opponent departs from the accepted line.
Combined king and rook move is allowed once for each side during the game. The king moves two squares in both directions, and the rook to which he moves is located on the square that the king has moved. This is the only move in which the king moves more than one square at a time and in which more than one piece moves. It is not possible to throw if the king has already moved, if the affected rook has already moved, if the king is in a pit, if the square above which the king must pass is under attack, if the king is in a pit after the move is completed or if any of the cells between the king and the affected rook are occupied.
Four squares in the geometric center of the board. The opening moves are designed to gain control over the center.
Pair clocks are used in all authorized tournaments and in many club games. After the player moves, he presses the lever that stops the clock and triggers its opponent. Every clock, thus, registers only the elapsed time for one player. If a player exceeds the time set on his watch, the flag falls and he loses the game even if he has a winning position.
Where maneuvering is tight, and the pieces are usually not enough long-distance working space. Such games are sometimes called “positional” because they are quiet, with rivals fighting for subtle advantages, rather than open and lively with tactical possibilities.
A series of moves that, unless the player has miscalculated, will lead to immediate victory or overwhelming advantage. The combination sometimes begins with a sacrifice of material.
The process of moving the figures from their original positions so that they can defend their territory and put pressure on the enemy.
A row of squares tilted across the board, not up and down (file) or side to side (rank).
The player, moving a checker, detects an attack on an enemy checker. If the attacked piece is a king, the move is called the detected check.
Two pawns in tandem on the same file. Usually it is a responsibility because if they are not able to protect each other they are vulnerable.
Two rooks in tandem on one file. Because they protect each other and act together, their strength is more than twice that of a single rook.
The last stages of the game. Most pieces have disappeared from the board, and the king, instead of hiding, becomes an active participant.
From the French – “in passing”. Shortened e.p. One pawn can capture another e.p. if the capturing pawn has reached rank five and the captured pawn moves two cells forward on the adjacent file. The capture is made as if the enemy’s pawn had moved only one cell forward.
French again. A piece in the prize when it is left to be grabbed without having anything to show for it.
Trade in a minor figure (bishop or knight) on a rook. To sacrifice a rook is to exchange a rook for a minor figure.
It is believed that the bishop, playing on the side of the board, violet tone. Usually the bishop is played in g2 or b2 (g7 or b7 for Black) from which he moves on a long diagonal to the square of opponent a8 or h8 (a1 or h1 for Black). The word from Italian Fianco is flank or side.
Lines passing from player to player, named after the pieces occupying them in the beginning. From left to right – for white – queen of the rook file, queen-horse file, queen-horse file, king file, king-horse file, king of the rook file. Order, readable from right to left, correct for black side.
Attack on two or more figures simultaneously. Although any chess piece – except a rook pawn – can execute a fork, a knight makes a specialty out of it.
An opening maneuver in which a pawn is offered in exchange for a strong position or a chance to attack.
The bishop can work without interference from his own pawns.
INDIAN SECURITY DEVICES
The family of vacancies in which black meets 1…Nf6 to 1…d4 white. It seems that there is no special agreement on the origin of this term, but most historians believe that it comes from the style of the game in India, where – because the pawns had no right to make a two-square initial move – the game tended to be slow and conservative.
Place a pawn or a piece between the attacking king and the attacking piece.
PAWN HOLE OF THE KING
Step 1. e4. Bobby Fisher’s favorite discovery. Moving a Royal Pawn opens lines for the Royal Elephant and the Queen, occupies a key central cell and prevents the enemy from occupying cells diagonally in front of the pawn.
Queen and rooks. Because of the number of cells they command (the queen can command 27 cells, not counting the rook 14), they are considered heavy artillery chess.
The highest ratings in chess, earned in major tournaments. There are about 90 grandmasters in the world. (Circus 1972)
A position or series of moves that inexorably lead to the one in which the king must mate.
MAT OR SHASHKA
A situation in which the king is attacked and cannot escape. End of the game.
Phase of the game, following the development, and the phase in which most of the action takes place. With many pieces on the board and the ability to attack from all sides, the king usually remains well hidden in this phase.
RESULTS IN A MINOR
Bishops and knights. A knight can command 8 squares and a bishop 13.
Ability to move freely on the board.
One of the Indian defensive complexes characterized by the sequence: 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Bb4. Named after Aron Nimzovich, author of the modest book “My System”. One of the many stories about Nimzovic is that in a losing position, during the tournament, he swept figures off the board and said loudly: “Why should I lose to this idiot?”.
File cleared of pawns. It offers a corridor to attack, especially if occupied by double rooks.
More or less standardized and analyzed schemes of moves, which both sides do at the beginning of the game. Some of them are named after people (Rui Lopez), some after places (Budapest countergambit), some after figures or moves (Defending the Four Knights). Some are descriptive (Giuco Piano, or quiet game).
A position in which opposite kings stand on the same rank, file or diagonal, separated from each other by only one square. The player whose move leads the kings to confrontation has an advantage that can be decisive in the endgame.
A pawn that a pawn of a different color does not exhibit on its own or adjacent files. Going to the eighth place, it can become any figure chosen by its owner. A passed pawn, thus, is a source of concern for the other side and a precious advantage for its owner. The two combined pawns on the adjacent files are a formidable weapon.
A kind of endless loop in which one side gives a check, the other gets out of control, the first side checks again in the same way – being unable to do otherwise without risking to lose the game – and so on. This represents a draw.
A position in which a shape cannot be moved because another shape will be subject to capture. If the piece to be captured is a king, the pin is absolute and the preserved piece cannot be moved.
Watch the closed game.
Promotion of a pawn, which reached the eighth rank. Usually a pawn is made a queen, as it is the most powerful figure. But sometimes a pawn is promoted to a lesser rank, especially if promotion to the queen leads to a stalemate.
Row of cells running from side to side of the board Each side numbers ranks from one to eight, starting with the rank nearest to it and ending with the rank of the opponent closest to it.
A piece that looks and is sometimes called a castle. It can be confusing, because the “castle” in chess is a verb.
Probably the most frequent black protection up to 1. e4. Its characteristic stroke is 1…c5. The theory behind this tactic is that it is an aggressive attacking move that eventually involves opening a queen-horse file for Black. Maroczy Bind (named after Gesa Maroczy, a Hungarian master) is a kind of Sicilian.
The situation when one of the parties can not make a legal move, although the king is not in chess order. A dead end is a draw.
The pattern of chessmen is a common design found in plastic, wood, jade, etc. – It is named after Howard Stanton (1810-1874), British chess champion, who was challenged by the New Orleans chess genius Paul Morphy. Stanton was more or less an unofficial world champion, but if his desire to meet Morphy at the board is any indication, he retained his title more by working on his feet than by playing the chessboard.
Master plan” of the game, as opposed to tactics – the execution of this plan.
Like in music, time. Multiple, temperamental. In chess there are mainly three elements – space, time and material. Space and material are obvious. Time, however, is more subtle. Initially, white, having the first move, has an advantage in time (and thus initiative). But white can lose time by making useless moves. To make a useless move is to “lose the pace”. Overboard, you can exchange the pace, space and material back and forth.
Waste from accepted or standardized lines. But variations – if they have any meaning – often end in standardized ones.
A position in which one side, if it must not make a mistake, must go further to check the other. Winning a winning game is sometimes impossible for beginners, but for Grandmasters it must be a foregone conclusion – that’s why Grandmasters often resign in positions that don’t look hopeless for beginners.
A situation where a player prefers not to move at all. Since the rules require a move on his turn, the player is forced to weaken his position.